Development of your pieces is the process of moving the pieces from the back row into positions from which they can attack the opponent much more easily. Without getting too much into opening theory, the purpose of the opening moves is to develop your pieces. Ideally, you will only move each piece once for the first several moves of the game, and make only enough pawn moves to enable your major and minor pieces (the back row) to move into position. Usually the rough order of this is to attack the center with a central pawn (e4 or d4), then move the knights out, then the bishops (this may require another central pawn move), then the queen, and then castle the king. Of course, development rarely progresses exactly this way.  You’ll have to react to your opponent as you develop as quickly as possible.

A lead in development is a temporary lead. It’s easy to spot: Do you have more material developed than your opponent? Has your opponent spent several moves shuffling pawns around, or moving individual pieces repeatedly?

Chess Development

White has a huge lead in development.

In the diagram to the right, it may look like both sides are on about equal footing.  After all, both sides have equal material.  White has a huge lead in development, though.  All of white’s back row pieces are poised to attack.  The knights and pawns are attacking the center, the bishops have been moved to areas from which they can move along diagonals, and the queen has moved forward, allowing the king to castle to safety behind a row of pawns (which also lines up the rook and queen, another advantage).

From this point, white should focus on blasting up the center before black has a chance to move out many of his attacking pieces.  White should also try not to move the pawns in front of the king, in order to protect the king from attack.

Especially in open games (where the center isn’t clogged up with pawns), you will want to take advantage of a lead in development as quickly as possible.  Lean forward and attack aggressively.  These attacks need not necessarily focus on the enemy king.  If you can blast away several pawns, gain a minor piece, and/or line up several attackers against the enemy king, you will have a huge advantage going into the middlegame.

One goal may be to prevent the opponent from castling.  If you can castle your king, and also prevent the opponent from castling, you will have an advantage that will last throughout the game.  How is this accomplished?  The rules of castling stipulate that a player cannot castle when his king is in check, when castling would move the king through check (any of the squares between the king and rook are being attacked), or if either the king or rook have moved.

There are sometimes cases in which a path through the d-file is opened up.  If you can send your queen across the board to capture the enemy queen, sacrificing your own queen to a capture by the enemy king, you will have forced the enemy king to move, eliminating his ability to castle.

So to review: In the opening, try to move each piece only once, developing all the pieces from your back row.  Castle early and try to prevent your opponent from castling.  If you have a lead in development, attack aggressively and quickly, because a development lead is only temporary.

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